Voltage Sensitive Dyes

Voltage sensitive dyes respond to a change in electrical potential difference across a cell membrane.  The Akita VSDs show dramatic changes in fluorescence intensity with changes in potential difference.

Akita VSD characteristics:
-620-630 nm absorbance, efficient luminescence
-Insert in cell membranes, slowly internalized
-Soluble in water and polar organic solvents
-Nonfluorescent in pure water, brightly emissive with surfactant addition and in polar solvents 
-Applications: membrane staining, fluorescence imaging, and voltage sensing

VSDs available for purchase and relevant characteristics

Catalog #PriceAbsorbance λmax, log(ε)Emission λmax, fluorescence quantum yield
VSD-0011 mg: $300
10 mg: $2500
100 mg: $20000 
Water: 623 nmChloroform: 630 nm, 4.80Water: nonemissiveChloroform: 690 nm, 55%
VSD-0021 mg: $150
10 mg: $1250
100 mg: $10000 
Water: 623 nmChloroform: 630 nm, 4.80Water: nonemissiveChloroform: 690 nm, 55%
VSD-0031 mg: $300
10 mg: $2500
100 mg: $20000 
Chloroform: 625 nm, 4.90Chlorform: 678 nm, 51%
Incorporation of bioconjugating groups is available but requires custom synthesis

Catalog #: VSD-001
Price: 1 mg: $15010 mg: $1250 | 100 mg: $10000
Absorbance λmax, log(ε): Water: 623 nm Chloroform: 630 nm, 4.80
Emission λmax, fluorescence quantum yield: Water: nonemissiveChloroform: 690 nm, 55%

Catalog #: VSD-002
Price: 1 mg: $15010 mg: $1250 | 100 mg: $10000 
Absorbance λmax, log(ε): Water: 623 nm Chloroform: 630 nm, 4.80
Emission λmax, fluorescence quantum yield: Water: nonemissiveChloroform: 690 nm, 55%

Catalog #: VSD-003
Price: 1 mg: $30010 mg: $2500 | 100 mg: $20000
Absorbance λmax, log(ε): Chloroform: 625 nm, 4.90
Emission λmax, fluorescence quantum yield: Chlorform: 678 nm, 51%

Literature:

Bardon, K. M. et al., “Synthesis of Water-Soluble Far-Red-Emitting Amphiphilic BODIPY Dyes,” ACS Omega, 3, 2018, 13195-13199